Primena ribljeg ulja može pomoći smanjenju simptoma kod astme izazvane fizičkim naporom. Nova studija je pokazala da riblje ulje smanjuje suženje disajnih puteva u ovih pacijenata a time i potrebu za korišćenjem lekova.
Takođe ovo istraživanje je pokazalo da deca koja imaju veće količine ribljeg ulja u ishrani teže oboljevaju od astme. Kod dece koja su dobijala 300mg ribljeg ulja dnevno simptomi su se popravili.
U istraživanje je bilo uključeno 16 odraslih pacijenata obolelih od astme koji su se rekreativno bavili fizičkom aktivnošću. Rezultati pokazuju da je njihova plućna funkcija nakon vežbana bila poboljšana za 64% i da je upotreba inhalacionih lekova opala za 31% kada su u toku tri nedelje svojoj dijeti dodavali riblje ulje. Studija, takođe, pokazuje da su u sputumu ovih pacijenata ćelije i markeri odgovorni za inflamaciju u disajnim putevima bili redukovani.
Potrebno je da uzimate 100g ribljeg ulja nedeljno. Ovu količinu resporedite tokom nedelje.
U oko 80% obolelih od astme fizički napor izaziva tegobe, a može se sresti i u oko 10% ljudi u opštojpopulaciji koji ne boluju od astme.
Inače, riblje ulje je odlično jer sadrži Omega 3 masne kiseline (dobre masne kiseline). I to je jedan od najbitnijih razloga zašto treba jesti ribu.
Hrana bogata u n-3 masnim kiselinama
Najbolji izvori omega-3 masnih kiselina u ishrani su laneno, sojino i ulje uljane repice, i masne ribe, posebno ribe severnih mora (losos, haringa). U ribama iz Jadranskog mora najviše ih ima u plavoj ribi (tunjevina, bakalar, sardele) a od sladkovodnih riba štuka, smuđ i tolstolobik imaju najpovoljniji masno kiselinski sastav. Riblja ulja dobijena iz jetre riba koja se koriste kao dodatci u ishrani imaju bogat sadržaj vitramina A i D ali ne sadrže značajne količine omega-3 masnih kiselina. Poslednjih godina sve veću pažnju privlače dijetarni saplementi sa ribljim uljem i funkcionalna hrana odnosno namirnice obogaćene biološki aktivnim komponentama DHA i EPA. Preparati su pripremljeni u vidu kapsula koje sdrže po 500mg koncentrata ribljeg ulja uz dodatak vitamina E. Preporuka za unos je 3 kapsule do najviše 6 kapsula na dan.Važno je napomenuti da je apsorpcija i iskoristljivost EPA i DHA efikasnija pri unosu ribe u poređenju sa dijetnim saplementima.
Preporuke Američkog udruženja za srce (AHA) za korišćenje ribljeg ulja
Pacijenti bez dijagnostikovane koronarne bolesti
• Jesti masnu ribu severnih mora dva puta nedeljno. Održavati unos omega–3 masnih kiselina kroz ulja i hranu bogatu u alfa- linolenskoj kiselini (laneno seme i ulje, sojino ulje,ulje uljane repice, orasi i tušac- povrće slično spanaću, počelo je da se gaji i kod nas )
Pacijenti sa dijagnostikovanom (dokumentovanom) koronarnom bolesti
• 1g EPA+DHA dnevno, iz masnih riba severnih mora. Korišćenje saplemenata EPA+DHA uz obaveznu konsultaciju sa lekarom
Pacijenti sa visokim trigliceridima
• 2-4g EPA+DHA na dan u formi saplemenata (preko kapsula) uz nadzor lekara
Diet rich in fish may help prevent childhood asthma
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA. Childhood asthma is now a major health problem in Australia with 31% of West Australian children having been diagnosed with the condition. Chronic inflammation of the airways is also a major problem with 12% of the population reporting wheeze severe enough to disturb sleep. Studies involving Australian school children have shown that those who consume oily fish more than once a week have a significantly reduced risk of asthma.
Australian researchers now suggest that the epidemic of childhood asthma is associated with a change in the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in the Australian diet. It used to be around 5:1, but is now 15:1 or higher. They recently concluded a study of 355 school children of which 166 had been diagnosed with asthma at 6 years of age and the remaining 169 acted as asthma-free controls. A comparison of the two groups showed that the significant risk factors for asthma were:
- Gestational age less than 37 months (OR=2.93)
- Maternal asthma (OR=6.13)
- Breastfeeding for less than 6 months (OR=2.25)
- A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in the diet (OR=1.93)
After adjustment for other known risk factors the risk of asthma was 2.89 times higher among children with an average dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 18 than among children with a ratio of 8. The researchers believe that the benefits of a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids are due to the inclusion of more EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), the two main components of fish oil.
Oddy, W.H., et al. Ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and childhood asthma. Journal of Asthma, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2005, pp. 319-26
Fish oil benefits children with bronchial asthma
TOKYO, JAPAN. It is now clear that inflammation of the airways is an important factor in asthma. Thus, it would make sense that supplementation with a natural anti-inflammatory could benefit children with the disease. The two main components of fish oil, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), inhibit the formation of leukotrienes and prostaglandins from arachidonic acid and omega-6 fatty acids and thus reduce the generation of cytokines from inflammatory cells.
Japanese researchers now report that supplementation with fish oil does indeed reduce asthma symptoms in children with long-term bronchial asthma. Their study involved 29 children between the ages of 8 and 14 years who had suffered from asthma for an average of 10 years and were hospitalized for the condition. The children were randomized to receive fish oil capsules or placebo capsules (olive oil) three times daily for a 10-month period. The amount of fish oil given to the children varied from 2.4 grams/day (500 mg EPA + 215 mg DHA) to 4.8 grams/day (1000 mg EPA + 430 mg DHA) depending on body weight. After 10 months of therapy the asthma score (a measure of the severity and frequency of attacks) had dropped from an average of 21 to an average of 6 in the fish oil group with no significant change in the placebo group. The sensitivity to acetylcholine inhalation (a promoter of attacks) also decreased significantly in the fish oil group, but no change was observed in the placebo group.
The researchers conclude that fish oil supplementation for 10 months decreases asthma scores and increases acetylcholine thresholds in children with bronchial asthma. They do add that the conditions of their trial included a strictly controlled environment in terms of diet and the presence of inhalant allergens.
Nagakura, T., et al. Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma. European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 16, No. 5, November 2000, pp. 861-65
Fish oils help asthma patients
LARAMIE, WYOMING. Asthma is an increasingly common affliction in the Western world. It is estimated that between 20 and 25 per cent of all children suffer from one or more symptoms of asthma at some point. There is evidence that a high dietary intake of linoleic acid (n-6 PUFA) may exacerbate asthma symptoms. Linoleic acid is found in particularly high concentrations in vegetable oils such as safflower, sunflower, and corn oils. Researchers at the University of Wyoming now report that adjusting the dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be effective in reducing asthma symptoms in many patients. Their experiment involved 26 non-smoking asthma-sufferers aged 19 to 25 years. The normal dietary intake of n-6 PUFA was determined for all participants at the start of the study and after one month. For the first month participants were given fish oil capsules containing enough EPA and DHA to adjust their intake ratio of n-3 PUFAs (fish oils) to n-6 PUFAs to 0.1:1. During the second month the participants had their n-3 PUFA to n-6 PUFA ratio adjusted to 0.5:1. The average fish oil intake required to produce the 0.5:1 ratio was 3.3 grams per day. Extensive testing showed that more than 40 per cent of the participants experienced a significant improvement in their breathing ability and better resistance to asthma attacks while on the high fish oil diet. The researchers conclude that dietary supplementation with fish oils or other enriched sources of n-3 PUFAs may be a viable therapy for asthma.
Broughton, K. Shane, et al. Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5- series leukotriene production. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, April 1997, pp. 1011- 17
Oily fish protects against childhood asthma
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA. Researchers at the University of Sydney report that the regular consumption of oily fish is associated with a much reduced risk of developing asthma in childhood. Their study involved 574 children aged 8 to 11 years. The children’s parents completed detailed questionnaires about the frequency of the intake of more than 200 foods for a one-year period. The children were evaluated for current asthma as defined by airway hyperresponsiveness and a tendency to wheeze with or without exercise. The researchers found that children who regularly consumed fresh, oily fish (such as mullet, orange roughy, Atlantic salmon or rainbow trout which contains more than two per cent fat) had a four times lower risk of developing asthma than did children who rarely or never ate oily fish. The risk reduction persisted even after adjustment for other risk factors such as parental asthma and smoking, early respiratory infections, race, and place of birth. Consumption of non-oily fish and canned fish was not associated with a reduced asthma risk. Fish oil contains the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The researchers speculate that EPA may prevent the development of asthma or reduce its severity by reducing airway inflammation and responsiveness. A very recent study suggests that long-term fish oil supplementation may reduce asthma severity.
Hodge, Linda, et al. Consumption of oily fish and childhood asthma risk. Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 164, February 5, 1996, pp. 137-40
Hyperactive children lack essential fatty acids
WEST LAFAYETTE, INDIANA. Children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive. Researchers at Purdue University now report that hyperactive children have lower levels of key fatty acids in their blood than do normal children. Their experiment involved 53 boys aged 6 to 12 years of age who suffered from ADHD, but were otherwise healthy and 43 matched controls. Analyses showed that the boys with ADHD had significantly lower levels of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids in their blood. The hyperactive children suffered more from symptoms associated with essential fatty acid deficiency (thirst, frequent urination, and dry hair and skin) and were also much more likely to have asthma and to have had many ear infections. The researchers conclude that ADHD may be linked to a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids (linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) or a poorer ability to convert 18-carbon fatty acids to longer more highly unsaturated acids. The researchers conclude that supplementation with the missing fatty acids may be a useful treatment for hyperactivity.
Stevens, Laura J., et al. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 62, No. 4, October 1995, pp. 761-68
Fish oils improve lung function in asthma patients
PARIS, FRANCE. Asthma involves an inflammation of the airway (pharynx, larynx and lungs). Epidemiological studies have shown that populations with a high intake of fish oils have a lower incidence of inflammatory diseases such as asthma. French researchers have completed a small trial to see if oral fish oil supplementation would benefit asthma patients. A total of 12 allergic asthmatic patients who were routinely receiving inhaled salbutamol, steroid and sodium nedocromil therapy participated in the one- year randomized, double-blind trial. Half the patients received 1 gram of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily; the other half received a placebo. Participants were evaluated every month and lung function tests performed every three months. A significant improvement in lung function was observed among the patients in the fish oil group. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) increased by 23% after 9 months of supplementation. The researchers point out that the treatment was well-tolerated and urge large-scale, long-term trials to confirm their findings.
Dry, J. and Vincent, D. Effect of a fish oil diet on asthma: results of a 1-year double-blind study. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol, Vol. 95, 1991, pp. 156-57